The granite crust is generally estimated to be at least 50 km 30 miles thick. Therefore, steady state has not been reached. In other words, radioactivity is concentrated in the crust but has not been there long enough to reach steady state. In fact, so much heat could be developed in this way that it has been practically necessary to make the assumption that the radioactive materials are limited in occurrence to a surface shell only a few kilometers in thickness. University of Wisconsin Press, , p. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust. In general, the heat production rate must decrease with depth. Otherwise, surface values would imply zero or negative mantle heat flow. In other words, the rocks directly below the Moho would have melted—an easily detected condition. Decades ago, students were taught that the mantle was a liquid.
Streetcar’s first extension opens The Portland Streetcar system continues to grow. On 11 March , reports Jon Winslow, the system celebrated the grand opening of its 0. Jon notes that this extension represents “the first time the streetcars run both directions on the same street. Rail Transit Online August reports that a short segment of this line includes “a steep, nine-degree downgrade, providing passengers with a spectacular view of the RiverPlace neighborhood and the Willamette River.
Thought Of The Day. ADVERTISEMENT.
Atlanta Skyline Georgia, the state’s largest city, and the seat of Fulton County. According to the U. It is also one of the most important commercial, financial, and transportation centers of the southeastern United States. Located in the northern portion of the state, Atlanta enjoys a high mean elevation—1, feet m above sea level—which distinguishes it from most other southern and eastern cities and contributes to a more temperate climate than is found in areas farther south.
Atlanta was founded in , a century after Savannah , the state’s oldest city. History The three dominant forces affecting Atlanta’s history and development have been transportation, race relations, and the “Atlanta spirit. Transportation innovations and their connections to Atlanta helped establish the city as a state and regional center of commerce and finance.
Click below to view all available U. Leavenworth, WA Boasting Tudor revival architecture, a Bavarian Village style shopping area, an annual Bavarian Christmas celebration and one of the largest Oktoberfest celebrations outside of Munich, Leavenworth offers up a little slice of Germany in the center of its spectacular Pacific Northwest landscape.
The town boasts many tours, wine tasting rooms and even a museum of nutcrackers from the ancient to the quirky. Nearby Alpine Lakes Wilderness offers adventures in biking, hiking, skiing and more. Missoula, Montana Missoula is dubbed the Garden City for its mild winters relative to the rest of Montana. Missoula is a pretty good place to live.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth’s atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature.
One of the first scientists to experiment with thunderstorm electricity even before Ben Franklin was killed by BL. In , Georg Wilhelm Reichmann attempted to reproduce one of Franklin’s thought-experiments. Lightning struck his metal mast, and witnesses said that a ball of fire flew out and struck him on the forehead, killing him instantly. For more info see the American Physics Society web site. Goodwin’s site for a story from when BL killed four in a church. In the spring of , my youngest brother was struck and killed by “a ball of lightning”.
This happened during the beginning of a thunderstorm in western lower Michigan. The “ball” made no course changes, just traveled in a straight line about 3 feet off the ground. It struck him square in the chest and blew his shirt off of him.
Log in to post comments More like this Howling at the Moon: Bad Gravitational Math There’s one piece of bad math that I’ve encountered relatively frequently in conversations. It’s incredibly frustrating to me, because it’s just so crazy – but the way we teach math and physics, far to many people just don’t have enough of a clue to see how foolish it really is. This comes up… Extreme Tides! The Truth is far more powerful than any weapon of mass destruction.
Nov 14, Nov 21, Nov 28, Dec 05, Dec 12, Dec 19, Dec 26, Jan 02, Jan 09, Jan 16, Jan 23, Jan 30, Feb 06, Feb 13, Feb 20, Feb 27 Helping homeless outreach team in Calgary, every Wednesday at pm.
A recent post here about thawing permafrost releasing climate-warming carbon dioxide into the atmosphere was no exception. As CO2 has had no noticeable effect on climate in million years, until 20 years ago, when carbon tax was invented, any alleged climatic effects can be ignored. I ordinarily ignore comments like the one I quote above.
Discover is a science magazine, not a platform for political grandstanding. And it is especially not a platform for ideas that run counter to basic physics and more than a century of hard scientific work by generations of researchers. This is not to say that I and the other writers and editors here at Discover view science as being infallible. Scientists know this better than anyone, so skepticism is one of their cardinal values.
Journalists are also supposed to be skeptical and self-critical. Maybe I should check because I could be deceived by my preconceived notions. My evidence for my comment, is climate history over million years, during which time, when CO2 increased, global temperature decreased, for several million years, and when CO2 decreased, global temperature increased, also for several millions of years.
Hieb has changed the graph a number of times over the years. And as Schmidt puts it: This kind of heuristic reconstruction comes from the qualitative geological record which gives indications of glaciations and hothouses, but is not really adequate for quantitative reconstructions of global mean temperatures.
The simplest way to debunk this is to note that all known books on clouds and weather say that contrails sometimes persist. As seen in this video: With discussion and reference here: The best approach is to debunk the individual claim such as:
Ocean acidification is the process by which oceanic waters progressively become more and more acidic, mostly as a result of absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer. Principal layers In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere. However, temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude, and may remain relatively constant or even increase with altitude in some regions see the temperature section, below. In this way, Earth’s atmosphere can be divided called atmospheric stratification into five main layers.
Excluding the exosphere, the atmosphere has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Exosphere The exosphere is the outermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere i. This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase. The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another.
Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space.
The ancient people who are considered the first scientists may have thought of themselves as natural philosophers, as practitioners of a skilled profession for example, physicians , or as followers of a religious tradition for example, temple healers. The earliest Greek philosophers, known as the pre-Socratics ,  provided competing answers to the question found in the myths of their neighbors: For example, that land floats on water and that earthquakes are caused by the agitation of the water upon which the land floats, rather than the god Poseidon.
This was greatly expanded on by his pupil Democritus and later Epicurus.
The History of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed history of scholarship.) Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of.
To put that another way, as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase, the process of ocean acidification will increase as well. To a point anyways. Impacts that can be reliably expected are: To put at another way — each molecule of carbonic acid that is formed in the ocean as the result of atmospheric carbon dioxide absorption eventually results in the transformation of 2 carbonate ions into bicarbonate ions.
Without the waters that these organisms live in being saturated with concentrations of carbonate ions, they are prone to dissolution and disappearance. How much has ocean acidification progressed since then? Roughly in step with the progress seen with regard to deforestation, desertification, and extinction rates, apparently. Conservative estimates are that between and surface ocean pH decreased from approximately around 8.
Since the late s the rate of acidification seems to have increased notably — with a research paper on the matter published in the journal Science stating that there are apparently no historical analogs with regard to the speed of ocean acidification, not anytime in the last million years anyways. The closest analog with regard to speed of acidification would very likely be The Great Dying discussed in depth in its own section.
This is a much more rapid rise than was predicted previous to that time period. A separate synthesis report published in in the journal Science stated that ocean chemistry was now changing more rapidly than at any time since the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event The Great Dying. These figures may represent underestimations, though, as the rate of observed change over the last few decades has been greater than expected.
Structure of the atmosphere Earth’s atmosphere Lower 4 layers of the atmosphere in 3 dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase. Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer. Principal layers In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere.
Search the world’s information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you’re looking for.
Number of Jobs in Database: The candidate should have an M. The successful candidate will be board certified in anatomic and clinical pathology preferred or anatomic pathology only acceptable. Alabama license eligibility is required. The Department of Pathology at the University Of South Alabama College Of Medicine is seeking a full time director of Molecular Pathology at an assistant or associate professor rank level on a clinician track.
The successful candidate should have: An Alaska community hospital based pathology group is seeking a part time Pathologist for up to 22 weeks a year. The candidate must be board certified in anatomic and clinical pathology. The candidate will be required to obtain an unrestricted license for Alaska prior to employment. The ideal candidate should have documented experience in a general pathology practice.
Subspecialty expertise in Dermatopathology or Soft Tissue is highly valued. Board certification and minimum of two years’ experience post residency are required. Qualified applicants must meet Arizona Licensing and compliance with appropriate CLIA requirements as well as be available to work rotating weekends. The candidate must be fellowship trained in GI and Liver pathology, including cytology.
He specializes in land development, including residential, commercial, and industrial projects, and has provided preliminary and detailed engineering design, site planning, project management and contract administration, and construction supervision. He has also completed site servicing assessments addressing sanitary, stormwater, potable water supply, and transportation requirements for greenfield developments and redevelopment projects.
His critical thinking skills enables him to engage in thoughtful design solutions from the earliest design phases through construction documents minimizing change orders in the field. He effectively leads project teams and assures client goals and expectations are met in a timely and economical manner. His commitment to quality design informs the development of the building elements, systems, materials and details to achieve functionality, durability and long-term flexibility through the process of value design.
He has led efforts to plan for and integrate emerging technology trends into transit agency systems development efforts.
– Updated Daily – Print out daily news stories for friends, colleagues, students, family or co-workers! Set this page as your start page for news updates as soon as you start your computer!
Number of Jobs in Database: The position is a partnership track. The candidate should have experience in autopsy pathology and fellowship training in pediatric pathology. Nova Scotia Health Authority is looking for three, full time pathologists to service two regional facilities; the Cape Breton Regional Hospital is located in Sydney one position , and St. Job duties include providing pathology services, reporting on anatomic pathology cases including cytopathology.
Candidates must be certified by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons or equivalent and willing to obtain , eligible for licensure with the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia, and satisfy the credentialing requirements of the Nova Scotia Health Authority. The Department of Pathology at the University of California San Francisco seeks outstanding Physician-Scientists for a full-time faculty position with research and teaching responsibilities at the Assistant Professor level in the tenure-track Ladder Rank series.
The successful candidate must possess an MD or MD-PhD degree, be Board Certified or eligible at the time of appointment in Anatomic Pathology, and be currently licensed to practice medicine in California. A minimum of two years demonstrated postdoctoral research experience is required. We are a hospital-based contracting partnership in St. We are interested in a pathologist with strong Surgical Pathology skills and we would favor to candidates with either Hematopathology or GI Pathology fellowships.
I celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loafe and invite my soul, I lean and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. My tongue, every atom of my blood, form’d from this soil, this air, Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same, I, now thirty-seven years old in perfect health begin, Hoping to cease not till death.
Creeds and schools in abeyance, Retiring back a while sufficed at what they are, but never forgotten, I harbor for good or bad, I permit to speak at every hazard, Nature without check with original energy.
Bnei Baruch’s Mission. Bnei Baruch is a non-profit organization for teaching and sharing the wisdom of Kabbalah. To maintain its independence and integrity, Bnei Baruch is not supported, funded, or otherwise tied to any government, religious or political entity.
By Janna Anderson and Lee Rainie The greatest share of participants in this canvassing said their own experience and their observed experience among friends is that digital life improves many of the dimensions of their work, play and home lives. They cited broad changes for the better as the internet revolutionized everything, from the most pressing intellectual and emotional experiences to some of the most prosaic and everyday aspects of existence. It is so useful that in short order it has become an integral part of all of our lives.
I work more from home and have more flexibility and a global client base because of digital technology. I monitor my health and keep my physician informed using data technology. My wife has gone back to a graduate school program and is much more connected to school because of technology. My entertainment and reading options have exploded exponentially because of new technologies.
Use of home speakers, Internet of Things, AI [artificial intelligence] and other emerging technologies is just impacting my life and likely will become more central. I used to write out first drafts of memos longhand. Increasingly I use a new free beta AI-based transcription service Temi to dictate my first draft and then edit that draft.